Le Kalimanthrope

Pluridisciplinary research group upon Kalimantan



The discoveries of rock art and the participants in the different expeditions:

1988, crossing Borneo from west to east

1992, ethno-archaeo prospecting in the Müller Mountains

1994, first prehistoric paintings in Borneo

1995, Pindi Setiawan joins the team

1996, Gua Masri, an enigma

1998, Gua Tewet, apotheosis of the rock art of Borneo

The Marang Mountains, the "Vereze" of Borneo

1998, Ilas Kenceng, 40 000 years old mammals!

2003, the honey tree and the tapir disappeared in Liang Karim

2006, Gua Harto (Beloyot) and its strange terianthropes


August: crossing Borneo from Pontianak to Samarinda, discovery of Liang Kaung's drawings. Participants: Guillaume Artur du Plessis, Pierre Boccanfuso, Michel Chassier, Luc-Henri Fage, Laurence Grollier, Patrick Julien, Georges Robert.




July: surveying at the Apo Kayan, by Laurence Grollier, Luc-Henri Fage.




July-September: speleo-archaeological prospection in the upper Kapuas, Bungan river (Liang Kaung) and Keriau. Participants: Jean-Paul Blancan, Pierre Boccanfuso, Jean-Michel Chazine, Luc-Henri Fage, Laurence Grollier.




November-December: implementation of a cave inventory and surface observation program in the upper Mahakam, Cihan and Kacu rivers. Participants: Jean-Michel Chazine, Luc-Henri Fage.



August: prospecting in the Mangkalihat karsts, East Kalimantan. Discovery in Gua Mardua of the first cave paintings of Borneo. Exploration of the Sungai Bai. Participants: Jean-Michel Chazine, Luc-Henri Fage.



August-September: discovery of rock art in Gua Payau, Gua Berhadapan, Gua Kambin and Liang Sara. Participants: Jean-Michel Chazine, Luc-Henri Fage, Pindi Setiawan, Tanguy Thuaud (cameraman). Production of the film Discovering the Ornate Caves of Borneo, (France 3).




August-September: prospecting in the northeast of the area, discovery of rock art (very degraded) in Liang Alan Bilan, Liang Pelahniran and Liang Ara Raya (paintings and engravings). Participants: Jean-Michel Chazine, Luc-Henri Fage, Pindi Setiawan.




August-September: discovery of rock art in Gua Masri and Ilas Kenceng. A very good year... Participants: Jean-Michel Chazine, Luc-Henri Fage, Pindi Setiawan.



April-May: discovery of rock art in Gua Tewet, calcite sampling in Ilas Kenceng. Participants: Eymeric Bernard (cameraman), Jean-Michel Chazine, Luc-Henri Fage, Pindi Setiawan.




May-June: after receiving a Rolex for Enterprise Award (November 2000), first multidisciplinary expedition. Discovery of 11 decorated caves in the Marang Mountains: Gua Tamrin, Gua Kayu Sapung, Gua Mentis, Gua Kurang Tahau, Gua Pindi, Gua Fosil, Gua Te'et, Gua Ujan, Gua Ilas Kecil, Gua Tengkorak, Liang Tébok, Gua Ham. Participants: Jean-Michel Chazine, Pierre de Coninck, Luc-Henri Fage, Yves Perrette, Pindi Setiawan.


September: Jean-Michel Chazine receives a Cristal from the CNRS.




May-June, caving expedition in collaboration with Centre Terre and Indonesian cavers. Exploration of Lobang Tondoyan, topography of Gua Sedepan (8 km), discovery of rock art in Gua Berak, Gua Payau II, Gua Jufri, Gua Sahak and Gua Tembus. Participants: Pierre de Coninck, Jacques Durand, Luc-Henri Fage, Fabien Hobléa, Georges Marbach, Jean-François Pernette, Michel Perreau, "Toink" Fathoel Rachman, Pindi Setiawan.


August: expedition in collaboration with the caving group Vulcain (Lyon) which topographies Gua Kambing and finds some isolated negative hands in Anak Kambing. Participants: Patrick Degouve, Christian Locatelli, Josiane and Bernard Lips, Georges Robert.




May: prospecting expedition in the Marang Mountains, partly financed by the SPB, discovery of rock art in Gua Leo, Liang Karim, Ilas Kerim. Participants: Serge Caillault, Luc-Henri Fage.


October-November: big expedition financed by the National Geographic Society, with shooting of a film for ARTE, visit of the main caves already known, first campaign of Franco-Indonesian excavations. Discovery of rock art in Gua Misna and in a second room in Liang Ara Raya (North Perondongan). Participants: Serge Caillault, Jean-Michel Chazine, Julien Espagne (lithician), Luc-Henri Fage, Carsten Peter (photographer), Patrick Mauroy (sound engineer), Jérôme Pavlovsky (cameraman). Indonesian archaeologists of the Puslit Arkenas: Peter Ferdinandus, Gunadi, Udin.




Realization of the film "Borneo, the memory of the caves", broadcasted in December 2004 on ARTE France and Germany.



May: location in the west of the karstic massifs, discovery of rock art in Gua Kecabe and Gua Harto. Participants: Luc-Henri Fage, "Toink" Fathoel Rachman.


September: Luc-Henri Fage receives the Liotard Prize from the Society of French Explorers.




August: speleological expedition of the caving group Vulcains (Lyon), discovery of three new decorated caves: Lubang Apil, Lubang Garbura, Lubang Pran. Participants: Bernard and Josiane Lips, Georges Robert, Xavier Robert, Philippe Sénécal.




Publication of the book "Borneo, the memory of the caves" in November 2009.




Publication by Le Kalimanthrope of the English and Indonesian translation of the book...



Dating of rock paintings in Borneo by an Australo-Indonesian team (Pindi Setiawan, Maxime Aubert): negative hands and figurative paintings from Ilas Kenceng (Lubang Jerigi Salèh) are dated more than 40,000 years BP by the Uranium-Thorium method (Aubert, ANU, "Nature") becoming, provisionally, the oldest known to mankind.


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